Home DOCUMENTARY History Technology History of CNC technology development and industrial automation

History of CNC technology development and industrial automation

The first numerically controlled NC machine tool was born 1959 – APT language was introduced 1960s – Direct numerical control (DNC) 1963 – Computer graphics 1970s – CNC machines were introduced 1980s – Control distribution number is put into use.

CNC (Computer Numeric Controlled – computer controlled) – is the control of production machinery using specialized computer symbology programs. We can see common types of CNC machines such as lathes, milling machines, laser cutting machines, waterjet cutting machines, punching machines.……

Classical numerical control machines are based largely on the work of a man named John Parsons. Since the 1940s, Parsons invented a method of using punch cards to record coordinate position data to control machine tools. The machine is controlled to move according to each coordinate, thereby creating the necessary surface of the aircraft wing.

In 1948 J. Parson introduced his knowledge to the US Air Force. This agency then sponsored a series of research projects at the Servomechanism laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

The first project at MIT was to develop an NC milling machine model by controlling the movement of the tool head according to 3 coordinate columns. The first NC machine model was exhibited in 1952. From 1953 the capabilities of NC machines were proven.

A short time later, machine manufacturers began making NC machines for sale, and industrialists, especially aircraft manufacturers, used NC machines to make the parts they needed. .

The US continued to try to develop NC by continuing to sponsor MIT to research programming languages to control NC machines. The result of this was the birth of the APT language: Automatically Programmed Tools in 1959.

The goal of APT research is to provide a means for machining programmers to enter commands into NC machines. Although APT has been criticized as being too large a language for many computers, it is still a key tool and is still widely used in industry today and many new programming languages are based on APT.

Modern CNC machines operate by reading thousands of bits of information stored in the computer’s program memory. The controller also helps programmers speed up machine usage.

From primitive machine tools with mechanical structures, today CNC machines operate under the control of a sophisticated programmed operating system, and can perform specialized functions with vertical and horizontal milling machines. horizontal, bed milling machine, vertical lathe, milling machine, 3-axis then 5-axis lathe for processing complex surfaces, pulse machine, EDM wire cutting machine, continuous punching, metal laser cutting and engraving……Currently, Machining Centers perform many consecutive operations such as turning, milling, drilling, grinding, on one machine with just one set-up.

Machining centers with the help of ATC automatic tool changing mechanisms, automatic bar feeding, industrial robot arms, etc. can be integrated into flexible production systems in large factories. Artificial intelligence and industrial applications 4.0 are increasingly developing and helping people produce more and more usefully, including CNC machines.

Today there are many large technology companies that produce CNC machines from CNC milling machines, CNC lathes, to wire cutting machines, grinding machines… all are collectively known as CNC machines.

OKK, DOOSAN, TMT, MORISEIKI, MIYANO, MAKINO all have improvements in electrical control with strong configurations from FANUC, SIEMENS, GSK, FAGOR… More modern, but these CNC machines are even synchronized. and equip additional robots to form an automatic line.

Design of CNC machines

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